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Abstract


THE ROLE OF IRANIANS ON THE INCONCLUSIVENESS OF THE STRUGGLE FOR INDEPENDENCE AGAINST THE MONGOL INVASION LED BY KARAMANIDS AFTER THE KÖSEDAĞ WAR
Kösedağ defeat had been the beginning of an overwhelming disaster which affected the Turkish people deeply in political, economic and cultural respects leading the depression of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum. It was not only the Anatolian land as far as Kayseri that the Mongolian army had trampled down after the war, but the dignity and reputation of the Seljuk sultan as well. Seljuk Sultan Ghiyath ad-Din Kaykhusraw II who deserted from the battlefield without ceasing, had charged Mühezzibüddin Ali (Deylem), an Iranian origin Seljuk vizier at that time, to fill his gap. He, without receiving any instructions, may be with the intention of preventing from the heavy burdens brought about by this unfortunate invasion went up to Mugan where the enemy commander’s headquarters had been located and made peace talks with Baiju Noyan in the name of Seljuk Sultan. A peace agreement had indeed been reached after these talks, however making the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum dependent and tributary on Mongols. This peace, which had been obtained as easily as the Kösedağ victory for the Mongols had further strengthened the Iranian element, who increased in number after the Mongol invasion and controlled the state bureaucracy that distressed the state from the beginning. Now the Seljuk rulers had become the puppets of both the Mongols and the Iranian bureaucrats who keep their office under their favor and sometimes appeared even more effective than the Seljuk rulers. Even after the return of Mühezzibüdin Ali while the annual tax and other liabilities which had been determined during peace talks were being negotiated with the Mongol envoys the anxieties of the Seljuk rulers not came to an end. Defeated Sultan was now trying to cover up his lack of foresightedness in the battle square by calling useless remedies such as to make defense alliances with the neighboring governments. He also sent directly Iranian Naib Şemseddin İsfahanî to Batu Khan with precious gifts. Isfahani consolidated the work initiated by Mühezzibüddin Ali bringing the Seljuk sultan a yarlık that confirms the agreement with Baiju Noyan and a variety of gifts. Thus, the dependency of the Seljuk Sultanate to the Mongols had gained an official and legal disposition. However Şemseddin Isfahani did not only confine himself to those things but also brought the title of “Nizâmü'l-Mülk” given him by Batu Khan with a yarlık that indicates his authority to adjudicate in Anatolia on his behalf. As soon as his return, he sat on the Office of Vizierate which was already been vacant as Mühezzibüd Ali had been dead long time ago. After this ambitious Iranian bureaucrat had died in 1249 Mühezzibüddin Ali’s son Muineddin Pervane replaced him. Besides being the most beneficiary person from the blessings of Mongol invasion, Pervane played an important role in stifling the independence movement of Karamanids against Mongols mercilessly and causing it inconclusive.

Keywords
Seljuks, Mongol invasion, Iranian bureaucrats, Karamanoğulları, Turkmans.


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